Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Some Parameters of Cardiovascular Health among Male Problem Gamblers

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Roma Tor Vergata, Roma, Italy



The aim of this study was to assess some parameters of cardiovascular health among male problem gamblers and the possible effect of long-term participation in aerobic exercise training on the parameters.
Materials and Methods: 
Three hundred and sixty-eight male volunteers aged between 35 and 55 years, were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial, they were confirmed as problem gamblers from the results obtained from the analysis of the South Oaks Gambling Screen. After the exclusion of 168 participants, 200 participants were randomly assigned to the control group (n = 100) and treatment group (n = 100), respectively. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Participants in the treatment group participated in a supervised vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise training program; jogging for 30 min/day at an estimated intensity of 6.32 metabolic equivalents, three times/week, consistently for 1 year. Data were analyzed using the SPSS (version 20 Armonk, NY, USA), and significant difference was determined at the level of P < 0.05.
The findings from this study shows statistically significant improvements in BMI (control: 27.18 ± 0.52, treatment: 21.73 ± 0.30, P < 0.000), SBP (control: 134.35 ± 1.63, treatment: 110.69 ± 1.11, P < 0.000), DBP (control: 89.18 ± 1.16, treatment: 77.14 ± 0.52, P < 0.000), HR (control: 76.85 ± 0.70, treatment: 72.06 ± 0.25, P < 0.000), and WC (control: 91.14 ± 0.78, treatment: 86.26 ± 0.41, P < 0.000) among participants in the treatment group compared to the control group.
Vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise training led to a statistically significant decrease in BMI, SBP, DBP, HR, and WC among male problem gamblers.