Effects of Happiness on Psychological Capital in Middle-aged Women A Randomized Controlled Trial

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Nursing, Trauma Nursing Research Centre, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Kashan University of Medical Sciences,

2 Trauma Nursing Research Centre, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran



In middle age, women's psychological capital decreases. Happiness is one of the possible solutions to this problem. This study was designed to investigate the effect of happiness on the psychological capital of middle-aged women.
Materials and Methods: 
The present study is a clinical trial study in which 60 middle-aged women participated through continuous sampling. The samples were divided into control and intervention groups by block randomization. The experimental group received group happiness training for 8 sessions of 90 min over 4 weeks. The control group did not receive any intervention. Psychological capital scores were measured at the beginning, end, and 4 weeks after the end of the study. The psychological capital questionnaire of McGee et al. and the background data questionnaire was used to collect information. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16.
The mean score of psychological capital at the beginning of the study in the two groups of intervention (100.615 ± 6.616) and control (104.9 ± 5.921) was not statistically significant. At the end of the intervention in the experimental group (146.154 ± 9.362) and the control group (109.700 ± 6.869) and 4 weeks after the intervention of the experimental group (129.423 ± 9.153) and the control group (110.700 ± 6.670), a statistically significant difference was observed (P < 0.0001). The difference between the scores of the two groups at the end and 4 weeks after the intervention in all dimensions of psychological capital (self-efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience) was statistically significant.
Health-care professionals can use group happiness training to increase the psychological capital of middle-aged women.