Comparison of pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women (third trimester) with and without anemia: a case-control study from Iran

Document Type : Original Article


1 Associate professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shohada Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Radiology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Objectives: This study aimed to compare pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women in the third trimester with and without anemia.
Methods: A case-control study was conducted, involving 144 pregnant women with anemia (case group) and 144 pregnant women without anemia (control group) receiving prenatal care in the third trimester between April 2021 and March 2022. Various maternal and neonatal clinical outcomes, such as response to iron intake, incidence of preeclampsia during delivery, rates of cesarean section, postpartum infections, small for gestational age (SGA) infants, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes, and birth weight, were recorded and compared between the two groups.
Results: Mean hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were significantly lower in women with anemia compared to those in the control group (p<0.001). The response rate to iron supplementation was 21.5% in anemic women and 97.2% in non-anemic women (p<0.001). SGA incidence in the case group was 7.6% (11 cases), while it was 2.1% (3 cases) in the control group (p=0.028). Although pre-eclampsia, cesarean section rates, and infant birth weights were lower in the case group compared to the control group, these differences were not statistically significant. No significant differences were observed in the rates of cesarean section, episiotomy site infections, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes between the two groups.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicate a correlation between maternal anemia and adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes, with a significantly higher incidence of SGA among anemic women. Therefore, healthcare providers in preconception care settings should identify anemic women prior to pregnancy initiation and provide appropriate interventions through dietary adjustments and supplements to mitigate adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Main Subjects

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