Comparison of the Effectiveness of Virtual Reality with Medication on the Memory of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Students

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Counselling, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch,

2 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch,

3 Department of Children with Special Needs, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Isfahan,

4 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran



The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) with medication on the memory of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) students.
Materials and Methods: 
The research method was quasi-experimental with pretest, posttest, control and follow-up design. The statistical population consisted of 7–12-year-old elementary school students with ADHD in Isfahan city in the school year of 2018–2019 which 48 of them were selected through purposive sampling. Data were collected using the Swanson Parent Form SNAP-4, Memory Subscale of Wechsler's Intelligence Quotient (IQ), and Raven's Colored IQ Test. The VR group received ten sessions of intervention and the medication group received medicines. Then, posttest and follow-up were performed for all the three groups. Multivariate tests were used to analyze the scores.
The results showed that there was a significant difference in memory variables in the posttest stage between the control and VR groups (P < 0.001) and the control and medication groups (P < 0.05).
In a general conclusion, it seems that VR therapy and medication have been effective in improving the memory of elementary ADHD students and the effects of these treatments remain in the follow-up stage, but the therapeutic approach of VR has been more effective than medication in both the posttest and follow-up stages.