Rapid Test for Traceability Assessment in Lemon Juice by High‑Performance Liquid Chromatography Fluorescence

Document Type : Original Article


1 Division of Toxicology, Department of Comparative Bioscience, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran,

2 Department of Chemistry, Payesh Zist Mabna Company, Karaj, Iran

3 Community Health Department, Koya Technical Institute, Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, Iraq,

4 Division of Food Safety and Hygiene, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran,

5 National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Research and Education Affairs Office of International Affairs, Food Safety Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran



Aims: Fruit juices, especially lemon juice, are the most targeted food goods for adulteration and fraud in Iran. The aim of this study was to
investigate the profile and concentration of free primary amino acids as a marker for adulteration in lemon juice. Materials and Methods: Amino
acids were determined with high‑performance liquid chromatography fluorescence. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were in
the range of 0.008–0.01 ng/ml and 0.03 ng/ml, respectively. Results: The method is suitable for distinguishing authentic juices from drinking
products that may contain little or no fruit juice. In our study, total amino acid concentration in natural lemon was 13.15 mmol/l and in other
brands was in the range of 1.81–14.84 mmol/l. Further, the concentration of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, and serine was more than
other amino acids. The findings showed that only brands 1 and 2 were considered similar to natural lemon juice. Conclusion: The present
study demonstrated that the concentration of the first four amino acids can use as a marker to determine lemon juice adulteration.